2021年7月29日 星期四

Do Chance Meetings at the Office Boost Innovation? There’s No Evidence of It. 到班工作較能激發員工創意?專家稱尚無佐證


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讀紐時學英文
2021/07/30 第344期 訂閱/退訂看歷史報份
 
 
紐時周報精選 Do Chance Meetings at the Office Boost Innovation? There's No Evidence of It. 到班工作較能激發員工創意?專家稱尚無佐證
'Black Widow' Gives a Taste of How Theaters and Streaming Can Coexist 黑寡婦證明 戲院、串流平台可共存
紐時周報精選
 
Do Chance Meetings at the Office Boost Innovation? There's No Evidence of It. 到班工作較能激發員工創意?專家稱尚無佐證
文/Claire Cain Miller
譯/陳韋廷

到班工作較能激發員工創意?專家稱尚無佐證

When Yahoo banned working from home in 2013, the reason was one often cited in corporate America: Being in the office is essential for spontaneous collaboration and innovation.

雅虎2013年禁止在家工作,是基於一個在美國企業界經常被援引的理由:待在辦公室對自發性合作和創新至關重要。

"It is critical that we are all present in our offices," wrote Jacqueline Reses, then a Yahoo executive, in a staff memo. "Some of the best decisions and insights come from hallway and cafeteria discussions, meeting new people and impromptu team meetings."

時任雅虎主管的賈桂琳.雷瑟斯在一份員工備忘錄中寫道:「我們所有人都待在辦公室裡,這很重要。一些最佳決策和見解往往來自走廊和餐廳內的討論、與新人的會面及即興召開的團隊會議。」

Today, Reses, now CEO of Post House Capital, an investment firm, has a different view. "Would I write that memo differently now?" she said. "Oh yeah." She still believes that collaboration can benefit from being together in person, but over the last year, people found new, better ways to work.

如今擔任Post House Capital投資公司執行長的雷瑟斯卻有不同看法。她說,「我現在會用不同方式寫備忘錄嗎?是的」。她仍相信面對面交流有助合作,但在過去一年,人們找到更好的工作新方式。

As the pandemic winds down in the United States, however, many bosses are sounding a note similar to Reses' in 2013.

然而,隨著美國疫情逐漸平息,許多老闆現在說的話都跟2013年的雷瑟斯類似。

"Innovation isn't always a planned activity," said Tim Cook, CEO of Apple, about post-pandemic work. "It's bumping into each other over the course of the day and advancing an idea you just had."

蘋果執行長庫克談到疫情後的工作時說:「創新通常不是規劃好的活動。創新是你一整天遇上彼此,然後推進一個你剛想到的點子。」

Jamie Dimon, CEO of JPMorgan Chase, said working from home "doesn't work for spontaneous idea generation, it doesn't work for culture."

摩根大通執行長戴蒙表示,在家工作「不利自發產生創意,也不利企業文化」。

Yet people who study the issue say there is no evidence that working in person is essential for creativity and collaboration. It may even hurt innovation, they say, because the demand for doing office work at a prescribed time and place is a big reason the American workplace has been inhospitable for many people.

然而,研究這個問題的人表示,沒有證據顯示面對面工作對創造力與合作至關重要。他們說,這甚至可能會損害創新,因為要求在規定的時間地點辦公,是許多人無法待在職場的重要原因。

"That's led to a lot of the outcomes we see in the modern office environment — long hours, burnout, the lack of representation — because that office culture is set up for the advantage of the few, not the many," said Dan Spaulding, chief people officer at Zillow, the real estate marketplace.

房地產公司Zillow人資長史伯丁說:「這導致了我們在現代辦公環境中看到的許多結果,工時長、極度勞累、缺乏代表性,因為這種辦公室文化是為了少數人利益建立,而非多數人。」

"The idea you can only be collaborative face-to-face is a bias," he said. "And I'd ask, how much creativity and innovation have been driven out of the office because you weren't in the insider group, you weren't listened to, you didn't go to the same places as the people in positions of power were gathering?"

他說:「認為只能面對面才能合作是一種偏見。我想問的是,有多少創造力和創新被趕出辦公室,因為你不屬於內部團隊,你未被傾聽,你沒去那些掌權者聚會的地方。」

He and others suggested reimagining the office entirely — as somewhere people go to every so often, to meet or socialize, while daily work is done remotely. At Zillow, nearly all employees will be remote or come in only once in a while. Several times a year, teams will go to small offices set up for gathering.

他跟其他人建議,將辦公室完全重塑為人們不時見面或社交的地方,而日常工作則靠遠距完成。在Zillow,幾乎所有員工都遠距辦公,或只是偶爾進公司。團隊每年會有幾次到專門設立的小辦公室聚會。

 
'Black Widow' Gives a Taste of How Theaters and Streaming Can Coexist 黑寡婦證明 戲院、串流平台可共存
文/Brooks Barnes
譯/李京倫

黑寡婦證明 戲院、串流平台可共存

There has been a lot of hand-wringing about the demise of movie theaters over the past year and a half, and for good reason. Most were closed for at least a few months during the height of the pandemic. Companies like the Walt Disney+ Co., NBCUniversal, WarnerMedia and Viacom have started to prioritize streaming for their films, in part to bolster subscriber interest in their own Netflix-style platforms.

過去一年半,許多人擔心電影院走入歷史,而且這樣想有充分理由。在新冠肺炎疫情高峰期,多數戲院關了至少幾個月。迪士尼、NBC環球、華納媒體與維亞康姆等公司開始讓影片優先在類似Netflix的自家影音串流平台上架,部分是為了衝高訂閱數。

Over the weekend came evidence that, at least for the biggest franchise films and with a carefully calibrated pricing strategy, theatrical distribution and streaming can coexist.

上個周末的事實證明,在定價策略精準的情況下,院線發行和串流可以共存,至少對最知名的幾個系列電影是如此。

At least for now.

至少現在如此。

"Black Widow," a long-delayed Marvel movie, collected about $80 million in the U.S. and Canada from Thursday night to Sunday for Disney. Overseas, the superhero movie sold an additional $78 million in tickets. That means that, in total, roughly 17 million people went to see the movie in a theater, according to Rich Greenfield, a founder of the LightShed Partners research firm.

延後多時才上映的漫威電影「黑寡婦」,周四晚間至周日在美國與加拿大為迪士尼賺進約8000萬美元票房收入。在海外,這部超級英雄電影票房收入7800萬美元。研究機構LightShed Partners創辦人葛林菲德指出,這意味共有約1700萬人到戲院看電影。

Disney also made "Black Widow" available on its Disney+ streaming service, which has more than 100 million subscribers worldwide. Subscribers could instantly watch the film (and have permanent access to it) for a $30 surcharge. Disney said Sunday that Disney+ generated about $60 million from "Black Widow" orders over the weekend. Greenfield said that figure equated to about 2 million transactions and about $48 million in revenue for Disney after streaming partners had taken their cut.

迪士尼也讓黑寡婦在全球訂戶超過一億的自家串流平台Disney+上架,訂戶額外付30美元,就能立刻並永久收看。迪士尼周日表示,黑寡婦上個周末讓Disney+進帳約6000萬美元。葛林菲德說,這個數字相當於200萬筆交易,扣除串流夥伴分得的收入,迪士尼可得到約4800萬美元。

There are several takeaways. "Imagine being a theater owner and realizing studios need you less and less everyday," Greenfield wrote on Twitter. "Leverage is shifting rapidly in the streaming era toward the studios."

從這件事能汲取一些要點。葛林菲德在推特上寫道:「想像你是電影院老闆,你會發現製片廠愈來愈不需要你。在串流時代,權力正快速轉移到製片廠手上。」

On the other hand, the fact that 17 million people decided to leave their bubbles and go sit with strangers in a theater — amid rising coronavirus infections, the result of the delta variant — when they could just push a button in their living rooms is nothing to sneeze at. For now, theatrical distribution remains a major revenue generator and cannot be ignored if studios want to make money on big-budget spectacles.

另一方面,新冠病毒Delta變異株肆虐引發病例增加之際,人們明明可以在自家客廳按鈕收看,卻有1700萬人決定放棄與世隔絕,到電影院跟陌生人坐在一起,這不是小數目。目前如果製片廠想在高成本大片賺錢,院線發行仍是不能忽視的主要收入來源。

 
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羅浮宮新館長 鋒頭勝過蒙娜麗莎
近日關於法國羅浮宮的熱門話題,蒙娜麗莎不再獨占鰲頭,同樣發燒的是羅浮宮新館長、228年來首位女館長戴卡赫。戴卡赫將推新計畫,最讓觀光客振奮的,可能是她打算夜間開館,方便年輕上班族下班後「享受在羅浮宮迷路的樂趣」。

疫情當頭,領導人更需要……靜坐!
當人察覺到威脅時,大腦的生存部分(主要是杏仁核)就會啟動,導致我們的專注力變得狹隘。為了能讓你在高壓環境中仍能維持領導力,花幾分鐘靜坐是一個好方法:早晨醒來、會議開始前,隨時隨地、沒有包袱地開始靜坐吧!
 
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十九世紀的美國風景畫


【樂高雄電子報】提供讀者掌握高雄最「夯」的訊息,感受維持不變的人情味與不斷改變的新高雄。 【慈濟月刊電子報】提供證嚴上人衲履足跡的彙編選粹,慈悲與智慧的雋永語錄,是您日常生活中的心靈資糧!
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新聞  健康  u值媒  udn部落格  
2021/07/30 第576期  |  訂閱/退訂  |  看歷史報份  |  寂天閱讀網
 
【編輯小語】 詢問旅遊團細節
【英語學習Plus】 Nineteenth Century American Landscapes 十九世紀的美國風景畫
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【好康情報局】 Fun學美國英語書展!和您一起FUN暑假
 

詢問旅遊團細節

若已經決定要參加旅遊團,對於行程的細節要如何詢問呢?

1. Would you please give me some details about the tour? 可以告訴我這個行程的一些詳細內容嗎?

2. Is it a half-day tour? 那是半天的行程嗎?

3. What can I see on the tour? 那個團是參觀什麼的呢?

4. Does it include a visit to Disneyland? 那個團有去迪士尼樂園嗎?

5. How long is the tour? 這個團會去多久?

6. Is lunch included in the tour? 這個團有包含午餐嗎?

7. What is the charge? 費用是多少呢?

8. Does the charge include meals? 有含伙食費嗎?

9. I'd prefer something less expensive than this tour. 我想找比這個更便宜的團。

10. What is the difference between this tour and the more expensive ones? 這個團跟那個比較貴的團,有什麼不一樣呢?

11. Where will we have lunch? 中午是在哪裡用餐呢?

12. Where do we get on the bus? 在哪裡搭巴士呢?

13. What time does the tour start? 幾點出發呢?

14. When and from where does it leave? 幾點在哪裡出發呢?

15. What time and where should we wait? 我們應該幾點在哪裡等呢?

16. Will we have any free time during the tour? 在行程中有自由時間嗎?

17. Do you have a Chinese-speaking guide? 有會說中文的導遊一起去嗎?

18. Does the guide speak any languages other than English? 導遊會說英文以外的其他語言嗎?

────── 節錄寂天講堂「詢問旅遊團細節」
 

Nineteenth Century American Landscapes 十九世紀的美國風景畫

I n the nineteenth century, much of America was not settled. So there were few cities. Not many people lived in the countryside. So there were many beautiful places for artists to paint landscapes.

One group of landscape artists was called the Hudson River School. The Hudson River flows through New York. These artists painted the land in this area. Much of it was forest. But there were also farms, fields, and many mountains. Thomas Cole was the first Hudson River School artist. Frederic Edwin Church and Asher Durand were two others. The Hudson River School artists were Romantics. So they idealized the landscapes they painted. They painted the scenes the way they wanted the land to look, not the way that it actually looked.

Around the same time, there was another school of artists. They were called Naturalists, or Realists. They painted nature as it appeared. William Bliss Baker was one of these artists. He also painted in the Hudson River area. But his paintings look very different from the Hudson River School artists' paintings. Baker's works are realistic. His painting Fallen Monarchs is one of the most beautiful of the Naturalist paintings.


19 世紀時,美洲大部分地區尚無人定居,也沒什麼城市。鄉村人口也不多,所以有許多美景可供畫家寫生。

有一群風景畫家被稱為哈德遜河畫派。哈德遜河流經紐約,這些畫家就專畫這一帶的土地。這裡大部分是森林,也有農場、田野和許多山脈。湯瑪斯.科爾是第一位哈德遜河畫派的畫家,另外兩位是弗雷德里克.艾德溫.丘奇以及艾許.杜蘭。哈德遜河畫派的畫家是浪漫主義者,他們會美化其所繪製的風景。他們所畫的風景是依照他們想呈現的樣貌,而非真實景色。

在同一時期,還有另一派的畫家,稱為自然主義者或寫實主義者,他們將自然的真實樣貌呈現出來,威廉.布雷斯.貝克就是其中一位。他同樣描繪哈德遜河一帶,不過他的作品與哈德遜河畫派截然不同。貝克的作品走寫實風格,《沒落君主》就是寫實畫派中最美麗的作品之一。

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