2020年10月29日 星期四

How a Medusa Sculpture From a Decade Ago Became #MeToo Art 神話翻轉 梅杜莎變MeToo女神


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紐時周報精選 How a Medusa Sculpture From a Decade Ago Became #MeToo Art 神話翻轉 梅杜莎變MeToo女神
On Facebook, Misinformation Is More Popular Now Than in 2016 美國人按讚假新聞 4年變3倍
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How a Medusa Sculpture From a Decade Ago Became #MeToo Art 神話翻轉 梅杜莎變MeToo女神
文/Julia Jacobs
譯/莊蕙嘉、核稿/樂慧生

神話翻轉 梅杜莎變MeToo女神

When artist Luciano Garbati made his sculpture of Medusa holding Perseus' severed head — an inversion of the centuries-old myth — feminism was not what he had in mind.

藝術家魯奇亞諾.賈巴第製作的雕塑,梅杜莎拿著珀修斯被砍下的頭,反轉了數個世紀以來的神話,創作當時他並沒有想到女性主義。

He wasn't thinking of the #MeToo movement either: Garbati had created the work in 2008, nearly a decade before the movement went mainstream.

他也沒有想過「我也是受害者」(#MeToo)運動,賈巴第於2008年創作這件作品,比這個運動打入主流早了快10年。

Garbati, an Argentine artist with Italian roots, was inspired by a 16th-century bronze: Benvenuto Cellini's "Perseus With the Head of Medusa." In that work, a nude Perseus holds up Medusa's head by her snaky mane. Garbati conceived of a sculpture that could reverse that story, imagining it from Medusa's perspective and revealing the woman behind the monster.

賈巴第是義大利裔阿根廷藝術家,創作靈感來自一座16世紀的銅像:班維努托•切里尼的「拿著梅杜莎頭的珀修斯」。作品中,赤裸的珀修斯抓著梅杜莎的蛇髮,高舉她的首級。賈巴第發想一座反轉這個故事的雕塑,從梅杜莎的角度來想像,展現這個怪獸的女性形象。

On October 13th, Garbati's sculpture — "Medusa With the Head of Perseus" — was reimagined as a symbol of triumph for victims of sexual assault, when it was unveiled in lower Manhattan, just across the street from the criminal courthouse on Centre Street.

10月13日,賈巴第的雕塑「拿著珀修斯首級的梅杜莎」於下曼哈頓區揭幕,在中央街的刑事法院對面,重塑為性侵受害者勝利的象徵。

A news release advertised the statue as an "icon of justice," noting that the towering, nearly 7-foot-tall Medusa stood across from the building where men accused of sexual assault during the #MeToo movement were prosecuted, including Harvey Weinstein, who had been convicted of two felony sex crimes there in February.

新聞稿將這座雕像宣傳為「正義的象徵」,特別提到這尊高聳的、近七呎高的梅杜莎矗立於法院建築對街,而該法院即是MeToo運動期間被控性侵的男性受審之處,包括哈維•溫斯坦,他於今年二月被定以兩項性刑事重罪。

Standing in the center of Collect Pond Park, Medusa — her gaze low and intense — holds a sword in her left hand and Perseus' head in her right. The head was designed after the artist himself — a convenient model.

梅杜莎站在活水公園的中央,眼神專注地向下望去,左手握著一把劍,右手提著珀修斯的頭顱。這頭顱按照藝術家自己的頭來設計,不假外求。

In his application to the city's Art in the Parks program, which reviews proposals for public art installations like this one, Garbati noted that Medusa had been raped by Poseidon in the Temple of Athena, according to the myth. As punishment, Athena turned her wrath on Medusa, transforming her hair into snakes. The application stated that the story had "communicated to women for millennia that if they are raped, it is their fault."

紐約市的「公園藝術計畫」負責審查像這樣的公共裝置藝術企畫案,賈巴第在遞出的申請書中說,根據神話,梅杜莎在雅典娜神殿中被波塞頓性侵。雅典娜把怒氣出在梅杜莎身上,將她的頭髮變成蛇作為懲罰。申請書中指出,這個故事「幾千年來告訴女性,如果她們遭受性侵,那是她們的錯」。

At the unveiling in the park, where the statue will stand until the end of April, Garbati talked about the thousands of women who had written to him about the sculpture. Many saw the image as cathartic, he said.

這座雕像將在公園內展示到明年四月底。賈巴第在揭幕過程中提到,有數千名女性因為這座雕像而寫信給他,他說,許多人認為這個形象讓她們的情緒獲得宣洩。

 
On Facebook, Misinformation Is More Popular Now Than in 2016 美國人按讚假新聞 4年變3倍
文/Davey Alba
譯/莊蕙嘉、核稿/樂慧生

美國人按讚假新聞 4年變3倍

During the 2016 presidential election, Russian operatives used Facebook, Instagram, Twitter and other social media platforms to spread disinformation to divide the American electorate. Since then, the social media companies have spent billions of dollars and hired tens of thousands of people to help clean up their act.

2016年總統大選期間,俄國特務利用臉書、Instagram、推特和其他社群媒體平台,散播假訊息以分化美國選民。自此之後,社群媒體公司已花費數十億美元,雇用數萬人以協助清除此類行為。

But have the platforms really become more sophisticated at handling misinformation?Not necessarily.

但是,這些平台在處理不實訊息上真的變得更為老練了嗎?不盡然。

People are engaging more on Facebook today with news outlets that routinely publish misinformation than they did before the 2016 election, according to new research from the German Marshall Fund Digital, the digital arm of the public policy think tank. The organization , which has a data partnership with the startup NewsGuard and social media analytics firm NewsWhip, published its findingspublished its findings earlier this month.

根據(美國)公共政策智庫「德國馬歇爾基金會」的數位部門「德國馬歇爾基金數位」的新研究,比起2016年大選之前,民眾今日在臉書上更常接觸慣常發布錯誤訊息的新聞網站。這個組織和新創企業NewsGuard及社群媒體分析公司NewsWhip是數據資料合作夥伴,本月稍早發表了前述結果。

In total, Facebook likes, comments and shares of articles from news outlets that regularly publish falsehoods and misleading content roughly tripled from the third quarter of 2016 to the third quarter of 2020, the group found.

該組織發現,整體而言,慣常發布錯誤與誤導性內容的新聞網站所發布的信息,在臉書上獲得的讚、留言和分享數,自2016年第三季至2020年第三季約增為三倍。

About two-thirds of those likes and comments were of articles published by 10 outlets, which the researchers categorized as "false content producers" or "manipulators." Those news outlets included Palmer Report and The Federalist, according to the research.

這些讚和留言約三分之二是針對來自10個新聞網站的報導,研究人員把這些媒體歸類為「不實內容製造者」或「操縱者」。根據前述研究,這些媒體包括帕爾默報告和聯邦主義者。

The group used ratings from NewsGuard, which ranks news sites based on how they uphold nine journalistic principles, to sort them into "false content producers," which repeatedly publish provably false content; and "manipulators," which regularly present unsubstantiated claims or that distort information to make an argument.

這個組織使用來自NewsGuard的評分,依據新聞網站遵循九項新聞守則的程度加以排名,將它們歸類為重複刊登可證實為誤之內容的「不實內容製造者」,以及例常提出缺乏根據的說法,或扭曲資訊以支持其論點的「操縱者」。

"We have these sites that masquerade as news outlets online. They're allowed to," said Karen Kornbluh, director of GMF Digital. "It's infecting our discourse, and it's affecting the long-term health of the democracy."

「這些網站假扮成網路新聞機構,它們被允許這麼做。」馬歇爾基金數位的執行長凱倫•康卜勒說。「這正在毒害我們的公共論述,以及民主政治的長期健康。」

Kornbluh said Facebook users engaged more with articles from all news outlets this year because the coronavirus pandemic forced people to quarantine indoors. But the growth rate of likes, shares and comments of content from manipulators and false content producers exceeded the interactions that people had with what the researchers called "legitimate journalistic outlets," such as Reuters, Associated Press and Bloomberg.

康卜勒說,臉書用戶今年更常接觸所有新聞機構的文章,因為新冠肺炎疫情迫使人們待在室內隔離。但是用戶給予操縱者和不實內容製造者所提供信息的讚、分享和留言的增加率,已超過用戶和研究人員所稱的「合法新聞機構」之互動程度,路透、美聯社和彭博資訊即屬後者。

說文解字看新聞【莊蕙嘉】

資訊愈發達,難以查證或以假亂真的「假新聞」也隨之增加。最常見也最白話的用字是fake news,本文則用了兩個不同的字來探討社群媒體假新聞亂象。

本文標題所出現的misinformation,字首mis意為「no」,泛稱非故意或不確定意圖的假新聞;這類新聞經查證為假消息後,會以hoax稱之。第一段的disinformation,字首dis意為「wrong」,特指刻意捏造與傳播的不實訊息,帶有deliberately to deceive的意圖。

因此,第一段談到四年前美國大選,俄國透過社群帳號刻意散播假新聞,用的字是disinformation。之後的文章談到傳播不實新聞的「現象」,則用misinformation。

 
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