2020年7月31日 星期五

See That Fridge on the Sidewalk? It’s Full of Free Food 紐約街頭的愛心冰箱 全放「免費食物


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2020/08/07 第311期 訂閱/退訂看歷史報份
 
 
紐時周報精選 See That Fridge on the Sidewalk? It's Full of Free Food 紐約街頭的愛心冰箱 全放「免費食物」
Colleges Face Rising Revolt by Professors 重返大學校園 美國教授很有意見
紐時周報精選
 
See That Fridge on the Sidewalk? It's Full of Free Food 紐約街頭的愛心冰箱 全放「免費食物」
紐約街頭的愛心冰箱 全放「免費食物」

A lonely refrigerator sits on a Bronx sidewalk at 242nd Street and Broadway. It's not trash.

紐約布朗克斯區242街與百老匯街交口的人行道上,一台冰箱孤零零站在那兒。它可不是棄置物。

Painted in bright yellows, purples, oranges and blues, the fridge has "Free Food" written in bubble letters across its freezer, with the same in Spanish, "Comida Gratis," on its side.

冰箱漆成亮黃色、紫色、橘色與藍色,冷凍庫上用泡泡字體英文寫著「免費食物」,側面寫有同樣意思的西班牙文。

Selma Raven makes good on that promise. She doesn't ask prodding questions of those who visit the fridge. She sometimes chats as she disinfects the unit, which is plugged into a socket inside a restaurant, and stocks it with fresh produce and ready-made meals.

塞爾瑪·雷文兌現了這承諾。她不會問光顧冰箱的人刺探性的問題。她有時會邊消毒冰箱邊聊天,並放入新鮮農產品和現成飯菜。冰箱從一家餐廳內的插座取電。

Mothers, home attendants, nursing assistants and the unemployed stop by the fridge to pick up food, Raven said. At first, some residents were skeptical; even cabdrivers told her it wouldn't work. Now, they're allies.

雷文說,為人母者、家庭看護、護理助理員及失業者會在冰箱旁停下拿取食物。起初一些居民抱持懷疑態度,連計程車司機都告訴她這行不通,如今他們都成了盟友。

Community-led, free-food refrigerators, sometimes nicknamed "friendly fridges," have been popping up on city sidewalks since February.

今年2月以來,亦稱「友善冰箱」、由社區主導的免費食物冰箱不斷出現在市街人行道上。

When the coronavirus pandemic and stay-at-home orders halted New York City's economy, many residents — some suddenly out of work, and others sick with the illness — struggled to fill their own refrigerators.

新冠肺炎全球大流行和居家避疫令讓紐約市經濟停滯,許多居民(有些突然失業,有些患上這疾病)難以填滿自己的冰箱。

At community refrigerators, anyone is welcome to take whatever they want and leave behind food they don't need, like extra produce. Many volunteers who clean and stock the refrigerators daily ask local restaurants and stores to donate unused or unsold food items instead of throwing them away.

社區冰箱歡迎任何人取走任何東西,留下不需要的食物,像是多餘的農產品。每天清潔和存放食物的許多志工請求在地餐廳跟商家,捐出未用過或未賣出的食物,不要丟棄。

The goals are simple: Reduce food waste and feed the community.

目標很簡單:減少食物浪費,並為社區提供食物。

Food insecurity and waste have plagued both New Yorkers and the environment long before the pandemic. In the city, about 2 million people, or 1 in every 4 New Yorkers, are food insecure.

早在這場全球疫情發生以前,糧食取得缺乏保障與糧食的浪費就開始困擾紐約的居民和環境。這座城市約有200萬人,也就是4分之一的人,處於糧食無保障狀態。

About 30% of the country's food supply is wasted, according to the U.S. Department of Agriculture.

美國農業部指出,美國有3成左右的糧食供應遭到丟棄。

A network of New Yorkers collaborating with In Our Hearts, an activist group, have set up and maintained at least 14 fridges, which are plugged into local bodegas, restaurants or homes with permission.

一個由紐約人組成、跟社運組織「在我們心中」合作的網絡已設立並維護至少14台冰箱,這些冰箱在當地雜貨店、餐廳或住家的許可下接上電源。

The volunteers who tend to many of the free-food refrigerators in New York communicate with one another on Signal, the encrypted messaging app, to coordinate the distribution of food from organizations like Universe City, an aquaponic farm and work space in Brownsville, Brooklyn.

在紐約照料許多免費食物冰箱的志工,以加密通訊應用程式Signal互相連絡,以協調來自「宇宙城」等組織的食物分配。宇宙城是個位於布魯克林區布朗斯維爾的魚菜共生農場和工作室。

Thadeaus Umpster, an organizer with In Our Hearts, said that people have been giving away refrigerators through Instagram.In February, Umpster set up the group's first refrigerator in Bedford-Stuyvesant, Brooklyn.

在我們心中的組織者薩迪厄斯.安普斯特說,人們一直透過Instagram捐出冰箱。今年2月,安普斯特在布魯克林區貝德福-史泰維山特設置該組織的第一台冰箱。

As the pandemic worsened in March and April, other people asked to get involved. It also seemed that the more refrigerators New Yorkers saw on social media like Instagram, the more new ones appeared.

隨著疫情在3月與4月惡化,另有些人要求參與,而且似乎紐約人在Instagram等社群媒體上看到的冰箱越多,新冰箱出現的也越多。

In recent weeks, Umpster has been distributing food to other fridges and answering calls from people across the world who want to start similar projects.

近幾周安普斯特一直在向其他冰箱分發食物,並接聽世界各地想要啟動類似計畫者打來的電話。

(Amanda Rosa)(陳韋廷/譯,樂慧生/核稿)

 
Colleges Face Rising Revolt by Professors 重返大學校園 美國教授很有意見
重返大學校園 教授很有意見

College students across the country have been warned that campus life will look drastically different in the fall, with temperature checks at academic buildings, masks in half-empty lecture halls and maybe no football games.

全美國的大學生都已經接獲警告,今年秋季的校園生活將會與以往大不相同,教學大樓內會有體溫檢測站,空了一半的教室裡大家必須戴上口罩,而且可能不會有美式足球比賽了。

What they might not expect: a lack of professors in the classroom.

他們可能意想不到的情況是:教室裡少了教授。

Thousands of instructors at American colleges and universities have told administrators in recent days that they are unwilling to resume in-person classes because of the pandemic.

美國各學院與大學已有數以千計的教師近日告訴校方,由於新冠肺炎疫情嚴重,他們不願恢復面對面的授課。

More than three-quarters of colleges and universities have decided students can return to campus this fall. But they face a growing faculty revolt.

全美超過四分之三的學院和大學已經決定讓學生今年秋天重返校園,但他們面臨到愈來愈多教師的反抗。

"Until there's a vaccine, I'm not setting foot on campus," said Dana Ward, 70, an emeritus professor of political studies at Pitzer College in Claremont, California, who teaches a class in anarchist history and thought. "Going into the classroom is like playing Russian roulette."

現年70歲、在加州克萊蒙匹澤學院教授無政府主義歷史與思想課程的政治學榮譽教授達娜.沃德說:「在疫苗出現之前,我不會踏進校園。走進教室就像在玩俄羅斯輪盤。」

This comes as major outbreaks have hit college towns this summer, spread by partying students and practicing athletes.

It is hard to predict how many professors will refuse to teach face to face in the fall. But schools and professors are planning ahead.

這是因為今年夏天各地的大學城都爆發大規模疫情,由聚會狂歡的學生與做訓練的運動員傳播開來。目前很難預測有多少教授會拒絕在秋季進行面對面教學,但學校跟教授們都正在未雨綢繆。

A Cornell University survey of its faculty found that about one-third were "not interested in teaching classes in person," one-third were "open to doing it if conditions were deemed to be safe," and about one-third were "willing and anxious to teach in person," said Michael Kotlikoff, Cornell's provost.

康乃爾大學教務長麥可·柯里考夫表示,一項對教職人員的調查發現,約有三分之一「無意親自授課」,另有三分之一「在情況被視為安全的前提下,願意親自授課」,剩下的大約三分之一則「願意且渴望親自授課」。

Faculty members at institutions including Penn State, the University of Illinois, Notre Dame and the State University of New York have signed petitions complaining that they are not being consulted and are being pushed back into classrooms too fast.

在包括賓州州立大學、伊利諾大學、聖母大學與紐約州立大學在內的一些院校,教職人員已連署請願書,抱怨校方沒有徵詢他們的意見,並且過早逼他們重回教室。

The University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign campus is known for its lively social scene, says a faculty petition. To expect more than 50,000 students to behave according to public health guidelines, it goes on, "would be to ignore reality."

一份教職人員請願書中寫道,厄巴納-香檳伊利諾大學以社交活動熱絡聞名,指望5萬多名學生按照公衛準則行事「是無視於現實」。

At Penn State, an open letter signed by more than 1,000 faculty members demands that the university "affirm the autonomy of instructors in deciding whether to teach classes, attend meetings and hold office hours remotely, in person or in some hybrid mode." The letter also asks for faculty members to be able to change their mode of teaching at any time, and not to be obligated to disclose personal health information as a condition of teaching online.

在賓州州立大學,一封有1000多名教職人員連署的公開信要求校方「確認教師在決定遠距、親自或以某種混合模式授課、參加會議與安排輔導時間上,擁有自主權」。信中還要求讓教職人員能隨時改變教學模式,且不得以強制披露個人健康資訊作為允許他們從事線上教學的條件。

"I shudder at the prospect of teaching in a room filled with asymptomatic superspreaders," wrote Paul M. Kellermann, 62, an English professor at Penn State, in an essay for Esquire magazine, proclaiming that "1,000 of my colleagues agree."

現年62歲的賓州州立大學英語教授保羅.凱勒曼在君子雜誌上發表文章寫道,「一想到要在一間充滿無症狀患者的教室裡教課,我就不寒而慄」,並聲稱「我有1000位同事跟我有同感」。

文/Anemona Hartocollis 譯/陳韋廷 核稿/樂慧生

說文解字看新聞

【陳韋廷】

全美許多大學在疫情爆發後被迫改採線上授課方式,如今好不容易能重開校園,卻遇上教授們拒絕重返教室的難題,文中以revolt(反抗、造反)形容他們的抗爭,而faculty在文中作「全體教職人員(即教師)」解,此字還指大學中的院或是部,像是faculty of agriculture(農學院)或faculty of medicine(醫學院)。

provost指美加地區高教體系中的「教務長」,負責管理一切學術相關活動與課程事務,但在英國則指大學中的學院院長。至於美國大學中常見職稱,除教授外還有chair(系主任)、dean(院長)、president╱chancellor(校長),又chancellor指的是有多校區的大學校長,而教授頭銜又分為assistant professor(助理教授)、associate professor(副教授)、adjunct Professor(兼任教授)及文中提到的榮譽教授。

另petition意指「請願、請願書」,為新聞英文常見單字,若用在法律領域內則表示「訴狀」之意,常跟動詞sign連用。

 
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2020年7月30日 星期四

遭逢天災時,寵物該怎麼辦


知音難尋?【古典音樂報】深度專業地介紹古典音樂樂曲與歐洲樂壇現況,讓你不再孤芳自賞! 【哈佛商業評論電子報】包含領導、創新、策略、管理等四大領域精彩內容。歡迎訂閱,與世界一流的管理接軌!
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2020/07/31 第523期  |  訂閱/退訂  |  看歷史報份  |  寂天閱讀網
 
【編輯小語】 容易用錯的所有格和縮寫
【英語學習Plus】 遭逢天災時,寵物該怎麼辦
【本月發燒書】 新制多益聽力搶分訓練營:3 STEPS打造高效聽力腦【解題技巧練習本+中譯解析本雙書版】
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容易用錯的所有格和縮寫

【their不是they're或there】

★ their 是they 的所有格
• Did Tyrone and Mark go with their friends Joan and Clark to Yellowstone National Park?
泰倫和馬克跟他們的朋友裘恩和克拉克一起去過黃石國家公園嗎?
(their 是所有格限定詞,修飾名詞friends。)

★ they're 是they are 的縮寫
• They're the best soccer players in Budapest.
他們是布達佩斯最優秀的足球員。
(they're 是they are 的縮寫。)

★ there 是副詞,不表示所有權,也不修飾名詞
• Hannah Hair wants to visit Bali and have a relaxing vacation there.
漢娜.黑爾想去峇里島玩,在那裡度一個輕鬆愉快的假期。
(there 是地方副詞,表示in Bali,說明漢娜.黑爾要在哪兒度假。)

【whose不是who's】

★ whose 是who的所有格
• Whose toy UFO was flying around Joe?
圍著喬飛的玩具飛碟是誰的?
(所有格限定詞whose 修飾名詞toy UFO。)

★ who's 是who is或who has的縮寫
• Who's going to feed Lou's parrot a sweet carrot?
誰要餵陸的鸚鵡吃一根甜胡蘿蔔?
(who's 是who is 的縮寫。)

────── 節錄寂天講堂「容易用錯的所有格和縮寫」
 

遭逢天災時,寵物該怎麼辦 Pets in Natural Disasters

The northeastern United States continues to clean up, repair, and rebuild in communities hit by Hurricane Sandy. Many people ignored warnings to leave their homes for emergency shelters. Often, this was because of their pets or livestock. Shelters rarely permit animals.

This issue comes up in almost all floods, large wildfires, and earthquakes.Christopher Cruise tells about efforts in the state of Oregon to inform people about how to protect their animals from disasters.

"Thank you for coming to our 'Animals and Disasters Preparedness' class ..."

That is Jo Becker of the Oregon Humane Society. She is opening a training program with pictures taken in New York during and after super-storm Sandy blew through the city last month.

"... firemen immersing themselves in chest-deep water for dogs and cats. We don't want our firefighters immersing themselves in polluted water..."

A number of people drowned in their homes because they stayed with their pets.

"Emergency shelters won't accept animals. If you're lucky, people and animal shelters will be located close to each other."

It is a nationwide policy to keep pets, except for service dogs, out of human shelters. Many people suffer allergic reactions to animal fur. There is also the danger of fighting between animals, attacks on humans, and other possible problems.

Some estimates suggest as many as 73 million American households include a cat, dog, or other pet. So what are these animal owners to do when natural disasters strike?

Class attendee Wendy Colvin is among those millions. "We own two pygmy goats and about a dozen chickens."

Wendy Colvin signed up as a volunteer with a disaster aid service after Hurricane Katrina wrecked much of the coastline along the Gulf of Mexico. So she has learned about helping her human neighbors recover from disaster. But what about animals? She says the rule against animals at shelters leaves
her with little choice.

"I hadn't really thought about it before. If we had to move them, we would probably put them into the pickup truck and take them wherever we had to go."

Holly Smith works at an animal hospital in Olympia, Washington. She says she has a plan for her dog, two cats, and two rabbits. She has plastic boxes ready to go with a seven-day supply of pet food, toys, and other things. She also has pet carriers for all members of her little zoo. Holly Smith says her animals are
more prepared for an emergency than she is. But she wants to do more.

"My biggest thing is getting, just getting the government to realize that animals need to be part of the solution and part of the plans. Otherwise they are gonna be a major hiccup, a major problem."


美國東北部遭受颶風桑迪重創的社區,正持續清理、修整和重建家園。很多人常為了自己的寵物或牲畜,而忽視緊急避難的警告,因為很少有收容所允許動物進入。

幾乎所有洪水、森林大火, 和地震災害都存在這個問題。克里斯多夫. 克魯斯(Christopher Cruise)解釋俄勒岡州如何努力使民眾了解,如何在災難中保護自己的動物。

「謝謝您參與我們的『動物急難準備課程』……」

介紹這課程的是俄勒岡人道協會的喬.貝克(Jo Becker)。她開了一門訓練課程,用上個月超級颶風桑迪肆虐紐約當時與過後所拍攝的照片上課。

「……消防員浸泡在水深及胸的洪水中,搶救貓狗。我們不希望我們的消防隊員,要這樣讓身體泡在污水中……」

許多人為了陪伴寵物,被淹死在自己的住家內。

「緊急避難場所不收容動物。若你待的避難所和動物收容中心剛好距離很近,那你真是幸運。」

除了服務犬以外,將寵物隔離在收容所外,是全國性的政策,因為有多人對動物毛髮過敏,還有動物會彼此攻擊、攻擊人類及其他風險。

據估計多達7300 萬個美國家庭,飼養包括貓、狗等的寵物。那麼當遭遇天災時,寵物主人可以為寵物做些什麼呢?

上這門培訓課的溫蒂. 科文(Wendy Colvin)剛好是數千萬養寵物的家庭之一。「我們有兩隻侏儒山羊,和十幾隻雞。」

在卡崔娜颶風摧毀了許多墨西哥灣沿岸地區後,溫蒂.科文簽約擔任災難援助服務志工。所以她已經學會幫助鄰居從災難中恢復,但是寵物怎麼辦呢?她說,避難所不能收容動物的規定,讓她別無選擇。

「我從沒想過這問題,如果我們不得不帶著寵物撤離,我想我們可能得把牠們放到皮卡車裡隨著我們逃難。」

荷莉.史密斯(Holly Smith)在華盛頓州奧林匹亞區的一家動物醫院工作。她說她為自己的一隻狗、兩隻貓和兩隻兔子規劃了一個逃難計劃。她準備了塑膠箱,裡面裝了七天份的寵物食品、玩具和其他東西。她也有寵物箱可以放置她的寵物們。她說她為寵物所準備的救難東西,比她自己的 還充足,但她覺得這樣還不夠。

「我的要務是讓政府體認到,要將動物納入急難解決方案的一環,也要為寵物準備逃難計劃,否則他們將成為一個主要問題。」

──────選自《美國之音新聞英語聽力訓練【二版】》
 
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