2020年6月29日 星期一

The Joker’s Real-Life Medical Condition 控制不了的狂笑爆哭 ── 假性延髓效應

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The Joker’s Real-Life Medical Condition 控制不了的狂笑爆哭 ── 假性延髓效應
by William Ryan

▲圖片來源:Clare Louise Jackson / Shutterstock.com


  The Hollywood blockbuster Joker was released last October to great reviews. It was praised for its mostly accurate depiction of an under-reported medical condition and empathetic portrayal of the film’s afflicted character, Arthur Fleck, played by Joaquin Phoenix. __1__
  In Joker, we learn that the villain’s haunting laugh is actually the manifestation of a condition called the Pseudobulbar affect (PBA). PBA sufferers undergo episodes of uncontrollable and inappropriate laughing or crying that can last for several minutes. __2__ PBA might seem to resemble mental illnesses like bipolar disorder or severe depression, but it is actually a neurological impairment and not considered a mental disorder. Even though PBA affects between two and seven million people in the United States alone, it is seldom discussed in the media. Thanks to Joker, the condition is getting some well-deserved attention.
  __3__ When a triggering incident occurs on a train during one of his episodes, Fleck snaps, and soon descends into the hideous villainy that has become the Joker’s stock-in-trade.
  Critics point out that Fleck’s episodes are exclusively laughing outbursts; he never cries. __4__ Citing other examples, they claim the film exploits those afflicted with the disease by oversimplifying PBA for dramatic effect.
  Joker has faced backlash on the grounds that Fleck, a rejected man who uses horrendous violence to strike back, is portrayed too sympathetically. Critics say this sends the wrong message to viewers. __5__ However, like violent video games, research suggests viewing such games and films doesn’t cause aggression.
(A) On the other hand, people may also suffer from PBA because of traumatic brain injury.
(B) However, the film quickly became a subject of controversy.
(C) Some have even called Joker a dangerous movie that could lead to people committing acts of violence.
(D) Because these outbursts are uncontrollable, PBA is sometimes called emotional incontinence.
(E) Real-life PBA sufferers, however, experience uncontrollable crying episodes far more frequently than laughing outbursts.
(F) In Joker, though not necessarily in reality, Fleck’s episodes are triggered by anger, anxiety, shock, or embarrassment.

▲圖片來源:Sherlock_wijaya / Shutterstock.com

▲圖片來源:Kristina Kokhanova / Shutterstock.com


blockbuster n. 賣座大片
empathetic a. 同理心的
 empathy n. 同理心
portrayal n. 描繪
 portray vt. 描繪
villain n. 反派角色;壞人
 villainy n. 惡行,邪惡行為
manifestation n. 表示,顯示
episode n.(醫學)疾病發作;事件;(相關的)一連串事件;一段經歷
bipolar disorder  躁鬱症
 bipolar a. 抑鬱性精神病的
neurological a. 神經(系統)的
impairment n. 受損
snap vi.(精神等)突然崩潰;突然失去自制力
hideous a. 醜陋的,可怕的
stock-in-trade n. 典型特點/行為;慣用手法
oversimplify vt. 過於簡化
backlash n. 強烈反對
horrendous a. 可怕的,令人驚駭的
sympathetically adv. 表示同情地

1. 第一題空格應選 (B)
a. 本空格在測試對段落結論句的掌握。
b. 本段主要在說明《小丑》這部好萊塢賣座片上映後的評價,先敘述該片因其對一種未被充分報導的疾病大致做了準確的描述,以及對電影中主角富有同理心的呈現方式而受到讚揚,而選項 (B) 表示,然而,這部電影也很快成為爭議的話題,語意連貫,且選項中的 became a subject of controversy(成為爭議的話題)與前一句的 It was praised(它受到讚揚)形成對比,可知 (B) 應為正選。
controversy n. 爭議
• The book has caused a lot of controversy ever since it went on sale.

2. 第二題空格應選 (D)
a. 本空格在測試對段落語意發展的掌握,答題線索為空格前的 uncontrollable and inappropriate laughing or crying。
b. 選項 (D) 表示,因為這些情緒的爆發無法控制,所以 PBA 有時被稱為情緒失禁,語意連貫,且選項中的 these outbursts(這些爆發)指的即是前一句的 uncontrollable and inappropriate laughing or crying(無法控制且可能不恰當的大笑或大哭),可知答案應選 (D)。
a. outburst n.(尤指憤怒等情緒的)爆發
• As a result of his outburst, Arnold was fired.
b. incontinence n. 失禁

3. 第三題空格應選 (F)
a. 本空格在測試對段落語意連貫性的掌握,空格後一句提及,在火車上一起導致佛萊克疾病發作的導火線發生時,他突然情緒崩潰,可推測空格應提及佛萊克情緒崩潰的由來。
b. 選項 (F) 表示,在《小丑》中,佛萊克的發作都是由憤怒、焦慮、震驚或尷尬所引起的,語意連貫,且空格後一句舉出佛萊克情緒崩潰的一個實例,可知答案應選 (F)。
anxiety n. 焦慮
• Rosie’s anxiety about unemployment is understandable.

4. 第四題空格應選 (E)
a. 本空格在測試對段落語意連貫性的掌握,空格前一句提到,有批評者指出,佛萊克發作的時刻都只有狂笑而從來不哭,而空格後一句提及,該部電影為了戲劇效果而將 PBA 陳述得過於簡略,可推測空格應與 PBA 病患除了會無法控制地狂笑外也會突然爆哭有關。
b. 選項 (E) 表示,現實生活中的 PBA 病患發作時經歷的無法控制的爆哭時刻要比狂笑頻繁得多,語意連貫,且選項 (E) 與前一句皆提及 laughing outbursts(狂笑),可知答案應選 (E)。
real-life a. 真實(生活)的
• Students will learn how to apply these theories to real-life situations in this class.

5. 第五題空格應選 (C)
a. 本空格在測試對段落語意連貫性的掌握,空格前一句提及,批評者說這向觀眾傳遞了錯誤的訊息,而空格後一句提及,研究表明,觀看這種遊戲和電影並不會誘發攻擊行為,可推測空格應與觀看《小丑》這部電影可能會造成負面行為有關。
b. 選項 (C) 表示,有些人甚至稱《小丑》是一部危險的電影,可能導致人們做出暴力行為,語意連貫,且選項中的 committing acts of violence(做出暴力行為)與後一句的 aggression(攻擊行為)相互呼應,可知答案應選 (C)。
commit vt. 犯(罪/錯等)
• The bomber committed suicide after being caught.

1. descend into...  陷入/落進……
 descend vi. 下降,降落
• The demonstration in protest of sexual discrimination rapidly descended into chaos.

2. on the grounds + that 子句  基於……的理由
• Bill broke up with Angela on the grounds that she was too selfish.

1. afflict vt. 使痛苦,折磨
 be afflicted with...  為……所苦,受……折磨
• My grandmother is afflicted with a rare disease.

2. haunting a. 縈繞心頭的
 haunt vt.(某事)縈繞於心
• Joseph was haunted by the memory of the terrible accident.

3. undergo vt. 經歷(不好的事情)
 三態為:undergo, underwent, undergone。
• The woman underwent a very difficult period in her life after the divorce.

4. uncontrollable a. 無法控制的
• At times, Tom suffers from uncontrollable sneezing attacks.

5. inappropriate a. 不恰當的,不適合的
 appropriate a. 恰當的,適合的
• Roy’s inappropriate comment offended his friends.

6. depression n. 憂鬱症;沮喪
• Experts now consider depression to be an illness.

7. exclusively adv. 僅僅;獨家地
• This perfume is sold exclusively in Paris.

8. cite vt. 引用
• The woman cited three reasons why she should have custody of the children.
 *custody n. 監護(權)

9. exploit vt. 剝削;利用
• Alex is planning on suing the company for exploiting their employees.

10. aggression n. 攻擊(行為)
• Nancy thinks television violence can encourage aggression in children.

trigger vt. 引起,觸發
• The mayor’s speech triggered a riot in the crowd.
除了 trigger 之外,以下介紹幾個也有「引起,觸發」之意的常見單字:
a. activate vt. 觸發,啟動
• If you smoke in here, you may activate the alarm.
b. generate vt. 引起,產生
• Gary’s jokes generated a great deal of laughter.
c. induce vt. 引起,誘發
• Taking a sauna induces profuse sweating, which helps the body rid itself of toxins.
d. prompt vt. 引起,促使
• The chemical spill prompted an emergency evacuation of the local residents.
e. provoke vt. 引發
• Yeast can provoke allergic reactions in some people.

控制不了的狂笑爆哭 ── 假性延髓效應

  在《小丑》中,我們了解到該反派角色縈繞人心的笑聲事實上是一種稱作假性延髓效應(PBA)的疾病表現。PBA 患者發作時會經歷無法控制且可能在不恰當時機持續數分鐘的大笑或大哭時刻。因為這些情緒的爆發無法控制,所以 PBA 有時被稱為情緒失禁。PBA 或許看起來像躁鬱症或嚴重憂鬱症等精神疾病,但它實際上是神經功能障礙,不被視為精神障礙。雖然單在美國就有兩百萬至七百萬人受 PBA 影響,此病症卻很少在媒體上被討論。多虧有《小丑》,這種病症正得到一些應有的關注。
  在《小丑》中(儘管未必會發生在現實中),佛萊克的發作都是由憤怒、焦慮、震驚或尷尬所引起的。在火車上一起導致佛萊克疾病發作的導火線發生時,他突然情緒崩潰,然後很快陷入了醜陋的惡行中,而這之後成了小丑的慣常行為(編按:此處使用大寫的 Joker 一方面是呼應蝙蝠俠裡 Joker 的誕生,另一方面則宣示他不再是許多 clowns 中的一個,而是已殺了不少人、引發暴動的象徵領袖)。
  批評者指出,佛萊克發作的時刻都只有狂笑而從來不哭。不過,現實生活中的 PBA 病患發作時經歷的無法控制的爆哭時刻要比狂笑頻繁得多。他們引述其他例子,聲稱這部電影為了戲劇效果而將 PBA 陳述得過於簡略,對於受此疾病所苦的人而言極不公平。
答案:1. B 2. D 3. F 4. E 5. C



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