2020年2月17日 星期一

Wombats: Cute But Not for Cuddling 可愛警告:澳洲袋熊

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2020/02/18 第449期 訂閱/退訂看歷史報份直接訂閱

Wombats: Cute But Not for Cuddling 可愛警告:澳洲袋熊
by Bruce E. Bagnell



  What kid has never seen a picture of a kangaroo or koala? Less well known is another Australian marsupial—animals that raise their babies in the mother's pouch—the wombat. Since it lives underground and is only active at night, even many Australians have never seen a live wombat.
  No, a wombat is not a kind of bat, though bats are also mammals. Wombats don't just live underground: they create their own warren of burrows that can extend hundreds of meters in length. They are true vegans, surviving only on plant material. Wombats are rather large, sometimes weighing over 30 kilograms, and covered with thick, protective fur. Though they waddle rather than walk, when chased by a predator, they can run for a minute or two at nearly the speed of a human Olympic sprinter! When it comes down to it, wombats are so strange an animal that nothing about them seems normal.
  Unlike most other female marsupials, the mother wombat's pouch is pointed backwards towards her rear rather than face. This protects the babies from shoveled dirt when a mother is digging her burrow. What also differentiates wombats from other animals is that their poop is cube-shaped. Wombats leave some 80-100 droppings a night. It is thought that wombats use the scent of their poop to navigate their way around the arid Australian landscape. Speaking of the backside of the wombat, this amazing marsupial uses its thickly padded and bone-protected rear to literally plug the entrance hole to its burrow when a predator pursues it. If the predator doesn't leave, the wombat can slam its powerful rear against the burrow roof, crushing the skull of the attacker!
  Strange, yes, but wombats are actually quite cute. Still, they can cause serious injury, so keep your distance if you ever encounter one on an evening walk in the wilds of Australia!
1. According to the passage, what do wombats and bats have in common?
(A) They are both marsupials.
(B) They are both mammals.
(C) They both have cube-shaped poop.
(D) They both feed on plants and vegetables.
2. Which of the following traits of a wombat is NOT mentioned in the passage?
(A) How fast they can run.
(B) The diet of the wombat.
(C) The skill to fill up their burrows.
(D) The size and weight of the wombat.
3. Which of the following statements best characterizes the wombat?
(A) It is a unique species with peculiarly shaped droppings.
(B) It is closely related to kangaroos and koalas.
(C) It is a highly skilled predator.
(D) It is not a very sociable animal.
4. What does the phrase "keep your distance" most closely mean in the last paragraph?
(A) Know the location of the closest hospital.
(B) Trek deep into the woods.
(C) Hold onto any valuables.
(D) Stay far away.


wombat n. 袋熊
cuddle vi. & vt. 擁抱
marsupial n. 有袋動物
pouch n.(有袋類動物的)育兒袋
mammal n. 哺乳動物
warren n.(地下交錯相連的)洞穴
burrow n.(尤指動物挖掘居住的)洞穴/地道
waddle vi. 搖搖擺擺地走
sprinter n. 短跑選手
rear n. 後面;臀部
shovel vt. 鏟起(本文為過去分詞作形容詞用)
cube n. 立方體;方塊物
droppings n.(指動物的)糞便(恆用複數)
arid a.(土地或氣候)乾燥的
landscape n. 地景;景色
padded a. 裝有填料的
skull n. 頭骨

1. extend vi. & vt. 延伸;延長
• The game was extended five minutes because it was tied at the end of regular play.

2. predator n. 掠食者,捕食者
• Large cats such as lions and tigers are fierce predators.

3. differentiate vt. 使有差異 & vt. & vi. 區別
differentiate A from B   區分 A 與 B
= differentiate between A and B
• Most people can't differentiate this kind of frog from others because they are so much alike.

4. scent n. 氣味,香味
• The shampoo has a light scent of herbal extracts.

5. navigate vt. & vi. 導航,指引方向
• The captain navigated the ship through the rough waters during the storm.

6. literally adv. 確實,的確
• The whole village was literally destroyed by the mudslide.

7. plug vt. 把……塞住,填塞
• The holes in the wall were plugged with cement days before the wall was painted.
*cement n. 水泥

8. slam vt. 猛力撞擊/推擠
• The manager was very angry and slammed the door shut.

9. crush vt. 壓碎
• We brought the wheat to the mill to be crushed into flour.

10. encounter vt. 遇到
• Chances are that we may encounter many setbacks in the process of learning.

11. trait n. 特徵,特性,特點
• Josh's most amazing trait is his endless energy.

12. characterize vt.
• Would you characterize John as a considerate person?

13. peculiarly adv. 獨特地,不尋常地
• Nina has been behaving peculiarly tonight.

14. sociable a. 喜愛交際/社交的
• Amy is one of the most sociable people I know.

15. trek vi. 跋涉,徒步長途行走
三態為:trek, trekked, trekked。
• It took the mountain-climbing team two days to trek across the forest.

1. survive on...  靠……(勉強)過活
survive vi. 生存 & vt. 熬過……;從……中存活
• We survived on nothing but beans and toast the whole trip.
• Willy survived the tough experience of his mother's death.

2. when it comes down to it  說到底
• When it comes down to it, an attractive appearance is not enough.

3. speaking of N/V-ing  談到/提及……
= when it comes to N/V-ing
• Speaking of money, Tim has no sense at all.

4. have... in common  有……共通點
• Billy and Jill are good friends and have a lot in common.

5. hold onto...  握緊……;堅持/持續……
• The worker held onto the rope and pulled it hard.
• There are some people who hold onto their jobs long after they should retire.

vegan n. 嚴守素食主義者(在飲食方面不食用含有魚、肉、蛋、奶製品的食物,在生活中也避免使用任何含有動物成分或以動物測試的產品)& a. 全素的
• Vegetarians who don't use or eat products derived from animals are called vegans.
a. vegetarian n. 素食主義者,奶蛋素者(不吃肉、家禽、魚及其副產品)& a. 素食的
• As a vegetarian, Lily never eats fish or meat.
b. pollotarian n. 只吃家禽的素食者(不吃紅肉、只吃家禽等白肉,也吃各種蔬果、蛋奶。pollo 在西班牙文中是雞的意思)& a. 只吃家禽的
c. pescatarian n. 魚食者(只吃魚類以及其他蔬果)& a. 魚食的
d. flexitarian n. 彈性素食者(大量攝取蔬果、只吃少許肉類的人)& a. 彈性素食的
• Molly is mainly vegetarian but occasionally eats meat and fish. She's a flexitarian.
e. freegan n. 免費素食者;不消費主義者
• Tyler is a freegan, finding and eating good food that has been thrown away.

When it comes down to it, wombats are so strange an animal that nothing about them seems normal.
介紹 "so... that..." 與 "such... that..." 的用法
so + Adj. / Adv. + that + S + V  
此句構用來表示某事物達到某種程度而導致的結果,so 為副詞,表「如此地」、「非常地」,其後須接形容詞或副詞以供修飾;that 則為副詞連接詞,引導的副詞子句修飾其前的 so,而且 that 在此用法中可予以省略,用逗號來取代,或甚至連逗號也不用。
• The room was so bright that we were unable to get any sleep.
※ so 之後亦可接含不定冠詞 a / an 的單數名詞(本文即屬此用法),句型如下:
so + Adj. + a / an + N + that + S + V
• Alice is so considerate a girl that I like her.
※ so 亦可修飾表數量的形容詞 many、much、few 及 little,句型如下:
so many / few + 複數名詞 + that + S + V
so much / little + 不可數名詞 + that + S + V

• Peter can speak so many languages that he was hired as an interpreter.
• There is so much work to do that I don't think I can go to bed early.
※ 若欲修飾一般可數或不可數名詞時,則須用形容詞 such 來修飾,句型如下:
a. such + a / an + (Adj.) + 單數名詞 + that + S + V
• Sandy wrote such a good poem that she gained the praise of her teacher.
b. such + (Adj.) + 複數名詞 + that + S + V
• They are such nice people that I love working with them.
c. such + (Adj.) + 不可數名詞 + that + S + V
• The construction site created such noise that we couldn't concentrate on our work.


  哪個孩子從未看過袋鼠或無尾熊的照片?較鮮為人知的是另一種澳洲有袋動物(會將寶寶放在母親育兒袋中撫養長大的動物)—— 袋熊。由於牠們生活在地底下且僅在夜間活動,因此甚至許多澳洲人也從未見過活生生的袋熊。
1. 根據本文,袋熊和蝙蝠有什麼共同點?
(A) 牠們都是有袋動物。
(B) 牠們都是哺乳動物。
(C) 牠們都有方型便便。
(D) 牠們都是以植物和蔬菜為食。
2. 本文中沒有提到袋熊以下哪項特徵?
(A) 牠們可以跑得多快。
(B) 袋熊的飲食。
(C) 將其洞穴填起來的技能。
(D) 袋熊的體型和體重。
3. 以下哪一項敘述最能描述袋熊的特徵?
(A) 牠是獨一無二的物種,擁有獨特形狀的大便。
(B) 牠與袋鼠和無尾熊是近親。
(C) 牠是技巧相當高明的掠食者。
(D) 牠不是很善於交際的動物。
4. 本文最後一段的片語 "keep your distance" 意思最接近何者?
(A) 知道最近醫院的位置。
(B) 跋涉深入樹林。
(C) 緊緊抓住任何貴重物品。
(D) 遠離。
答案:1. B 2. C 3. A 4. D


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