2019年11月11日 星期一

The Teddy Bears of the Sea 「海」洋泰迪熊「獺」上拯救地球之路

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2019/11/12 第438期 訂閱/退訂看歷史報份直接訂閱

The Teddy Bears of the Sea  「海」洋泰迪熊「獺」上拯救地球之路
by Ivy Liu


  Sea otters are some of the most adorable creatures on the planet. Their heartwarming behavior and furry faces are enough to brighten the gloomiest of days. Anyone who has browsed through social media can attest to that after watching videos of sea otters holding hands while they float sleepily in the water. Sea otters float on their backs even while enjoying a meal by smashing shellfish against their chests. Mothers attend to their young while on their backs as well.
  Holding hands is one way sea otters keep themselves from drifting away from each other, but another method is to wrap themselves in kelp. This can be seen when they are resting together in large groups, called rafts. Some researchers have spotted rafts made up of over 1,000 sea otters, an encouraging number thanks to years of intervention and protection by the US government.
  In the early 20th century, sea otters were on the verge of extinction, having been hunted for their thick and valuable fur. Yet, now with their numbers bouncing back, sea otters are being recognized as a keystone species, meaning they are crucial to maintaining healthy ecosystems and the overall health of the environment. Without them, kelp forests, which absorb enormous amounts of carbon dioxide and provide sustenance for fish and other sea animals, would be destroyed by hungry swarms of sea urchins. The sea otters help keep the sea urchin population in check by consuming them, allowing kelp forests to flourish.
  Researchers have noted that the influence of sea otters extends to every species within the coastal marine environment. It seems this species was saved just in time, not only helping to save ecosystems but also aiding our planet by decreasing carbon dioxide levels.

1. Which of the following is NOT an activity sea otters do while floating on their backs?
(A) Rest in rafts.
(B) Devour shellfish.
(C) Construct kelp forests.
(D) Take care of their offspring.

2. What can be inferred from the second and third paragraphs?
(A) Researchers have found that 1,000 sea otters are needed for a diverse ecosystem.
(B) Without intervention, sea otters would have wiped out sea urchins.
(C) Sea urchins hunt fish and seabirds for food.
(D) If sea otters were gone, ecosystems would collapse.

3. According to the passage, why are sea otters considered a keystone species?
(A) They were brought back from the brink of extinction.
(B) They are essential to a healthy marine ecosystem.
(C) They are able to herd sea urchins for farmers to sell to restaurants.
(D) They have the ability to protect other marine species from predators.

4. Which of the following is a finding of researchers regarding sea otters?
(A) Their rafts were discovered to be stable for humans.
(B) They live in communities of fish and other marine life.
(C) Their presence helps with slowing down global warming.
(D) They have the ability to absorb carbon dioxide.

a sea otter  海獺
attest vi. 證明(與介詞 to 並用)
shellfish n. 貝類/有殼類動物(單複數同形)
kelp n. 巨藻
raft n. 皮筏,竹筏
encouraging a. 振奮人心/令人鼓舞的
a keystone species  關鍵物種
 keystone n. 基礎,基石
ecosystem n. 生態系統
carbon dioxide  二氧化碳
sustenance n. 食物;營養
a sea urchin  海膽
coastal a. 沿海的,海岸的
marine a. 海(洋)的
offspring n.(動物的)幼獸;後代
herd vt. 把……趕在一起,放牧
predator n. 掠食者

1. attend to...  照顧/照料……
• James was in the bedroom attending to his injured son last night.

2. be on the verge of...  瀕臨……
= be on the brink / edge of...
brink n. 邊緣
• The entrepreneur is on the verge of bankruptcy.

3. bounce back  (受挫折後)重新振作
• Paul has had a lot of problems, but he seems to have bounced back pretty quickly.

4. be crucial to N/V-ing  對……極為重要
= be essential to N/V-ing
• David’s dedication to the company was crucial to our success.

5. keep... in check  控制/抑制……
• If you don’t keep your emotions in check, they’ll take over your life.

6. wipe out... / wipe... out  
• The typhoon wiped out the whole village.

1. adorable a. 可愛的
• Doris is such an adorable girl that everyone wants to be friends with her.

2. gloomy a. 陰暗的;不樂觀的
• The doctor seemed to have a rather gloomy attitude about the patient’s chance of recovery.

3. smash vt. 砸碎,打破
• Johnny smashed the glass after a big fight with his wife.

4. wrap vt. 包,裹住
wrap A in B  用 B 把 A 包起來
• The mother wrapped the baby in a blanket.

5. intervention n. 介入;干預
• Ms. Chu’s intervention soon brought the dispute to an end.

6. extinction n. 滅絕,絕種
• Whales have been hunted almost to extinction.

7. overall a. 整體的,全部的
• I suggest you examine the overall situation before making a decision.

8. absorb vt. 吸收
• Use that piece of cloth to absorb the spilled juice.

9. swarm n.(昆蟲等的)群;蜂群
a swarm of...  一大群的……
• Jack knocked down the hive and was instantly set on by a swarm of bees.
*be set on by...  被……攻擊

10. flourish vi.(生長)茂盛;繁榮
• My garden flourished this summer because of the warm weather.

11. devour vt. 狼吞虎嚥地吃
• The hungry boy devoured the hamburger in no time.

12. diverse a. 多元的,各式各樣的
• New York is a culturally diverse city.

13. collapse vi. 崩潰;累垮
• After weeks of hard work, the worker collapsed from exhaustion.

browse through...  瀏覽/隨意翻閱……(書刊、雜誌等)
browse vi. 瀏覽,隨意翻閱
• Al browsed through all the items in the catalogue.
以下介紹 browse 作動詞的其他用法:
a. browse around...  在……隨便看看
• Laura passed the time by browsing around the souvenir shop.
b. browse 亦可作及物動詞,表「瀏覽(網際網路)」。
• Sean browsed the entire website but still couldn’t find the information he needed.
a. flip through...  快速瀏覽……(書、雜誌等)
• Lisa flipped through the travel brochure and checked out the photos.
b. leaf through...  翻閱……
• I was leafing through a magazine when I saw a picture of myself.
c. thumb through...  (隨意)翻閱/瀏覽……
• After thumbing through a few pages, Ed decided to purchase the novel.

Without them, kelp forests... would be destroyed by hungry swarms of sea urchins.
※ 此種假設語氣用法可分為下列兩種情形:
a. 與現在事實相反:
Without + N, S + 過去式助動詞 + V  
= But for + N, S + 過去式助動詞 + V
= If it were not for + N, S + 過去式助動詞 + V
Without all her hard work, Ann’s business would not be what it is today.
If it were not for music, our life would be boring.
b. 與過去事實相反:
Without + N, S + 過去式助動詞 + have + p.p. 
= But for + N, S + 過去式助動詞 + have + p.p.
= If it had not been for + N, S + 過去式助動詞 + have + p.p.
Without her mom’s encouragement, Sally would have given up playing the piano.
But for the captain’s timely warning, Duncan might have been killed.



1. 以下何者不是海獺仰面浮在水上時會做的事情?
(A) 以筏的形式休息。
(B) 吞食貝類。
(C) 建立海藻森林。
(D) 照顧牠們的後代。

2. 從第二段及第三段可以推論出什麼?
(A) 研究人員發現,一個多元化的生態系統需要一千隻海獺。
(B) 若沒有介入,海獺會徹底消滅海膽。
(C) 海膽會捕食魚及海鳥。
(D) 若沒有海獺,生態系統會崩潰。

3. 根據本文,為什麼海獺被視為一個關鍵物種?
(A) 牠們從瀕臨絕種中獲救。
(B) 牠們對於一個健康的海洋生態系統而言至關重要。
(C) 牠們能夠將海膽趕成一群以供農民出售給餐館。
(D) 牠們可以保護其他海洋物種免受掠食者的危害。

4. 以下何者是研究員對於海獺的發現?
(A) 牠們的筏對人類來說是穩固的。
(B) 牠們生活在魚類及其他海洋生物的群體中。
(C) 牠們的存在對減緩全球暖化有幫助。
(D) 牠們能夠吸收二氧化碳。
1. C 2. D 3. B 4. C


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